The reparations policy for victims of Peru’s internal armed conflict, which lasted from 1980 to 2000, includes the internally displaced population among its beneficiaries under the Official Register of Victims. However, displaced persons are given lower priority than the other categories of victims also included in the program, such as those who were killed or who suffered disappearance, torture, or other types of attacks on the right to physical well-being and life.
The crime of forced displacement has been a widespread practice in Colombia’s internal armed conflict for several decades. However, forced displacement cannot be reduced to an inherent or unintended effect of the conflict. The armed actors in the Colombian armed conflict—the army and its paramilitary groups, on one hand, and the guerrilla groups, on the other—have used the practice of forced displacement of civilian populations as part of their military strategies to take control of or maintain a presence in certain territories.
In 2006, the Afghanistan Independent Human Rights Commission (AIHRC) launched an unprecedented effort to document the violations of international humanitarian law in Afghanistan between 1978 and 2001. Though it has not yet been made public, the 1000-page AIHRC Conflict Mapping Report is the most comprehensive documentation of this period in Afghanistan to date. As new evidence of past violations comes to light, Afghanistan must prioritize transitional justice measures to break the cycle of abuse. The briefing paper entitled “Afghanistan: The Past as a Prologue,” provides analysis of past reports identifying the patterns of abuses and puts forth recommendations to the government of Afghanistan as it confronts new evidence of the past.
Following field research in late 2009 and a 2010 workshop in Kinshasa, ICTJ produced a report in French on the challenges of enforcing court-ordered reparations. This briefing paper outlines and summarizes the challenges and recommendations discussed in the report. It also proposes additional steps that the government, international community, victims and civil society organizations can take to address the failure of the DRC to fulfill outstanding orders for reparations, as well as broader measures that can be implemented, including non-judicial reparations measures.
“We women of Papua have been bruised, cornered, besieged from all directions. We are not safe at home, and even less so outside the home. The burden we bear to feed our children is too heavy. The history of the Papuan people is covered in blood, and women are no exception as victims of the violence of blind military actions. We have experienced rape and sexual abuse in detention, in the grasslands, while seeking refuge, no matter where we were when the army and police conducted operations in the name of security.”
Indonesia has initiated transitional justice mechanisms to address human rights abuses that occurred during and after the New Order regime, but insufficient political will has rendered these efforts inadequate in achieving justice and reconciliation for victims.
The Kenya Transitional Justice Brief, a quarterly bulletin by ICTJ highlighting current developments in the field of transitional justice in Kenya. This brief focuses on the process of implementing the 2010 constitution and the political context in which this takes place, providing a summary of events and analysis of the status and challenges to the various reforms.
Established in 2004, Morocco’s Equity and Reconciliation Commission (IER: l’Instance équité et réconciliation) was one of the first attempts made in the Arab world to address human rights violations perpetrated in the post-independence period. It also aimed to include female victims of human rights abuse into broader transitional justice programs. This publication analyzes whether the various transitional justice processes undertaken by the IER sufficiently fulfill the gender-specific focus of its mandate.
The South African Coalition for Transitional Justice (SACTJ) submits the following comments regarding the May 11, 2010 General Notice 282 published in the Government Gazette. The Coalition objects to the Notice 282 regulations on procedural, constitutional, and international law grounds, and makes recommendations on how the government can these concerns.
Both of the books reviewed here provide deep analysis regarding the challenges of repairing historical mass crimes and past harmful policies, aswell as the limitations and difficulties of such endeavors.