Established in 2004, Morocco’s Equity and Reconciliation Commission (IER: l’Instance équité et réconciliation) was one of the first attempts made in the Arab world to address human rights violations perpetrated in the post-independence period. It also aimed to include female victims of human rights abuse into broader transitional justice programs. This publication analyzes whether the various transitional justice processes undertaken by the IER sufficiently fulfill the gender-specific focus of its mandate.



Indigenous peoples are among those most affected by contemporary conflict. The resource-rich territories they occupy are coveted by powerful, often violent groups. Their identity is perceived with mistrust, sometimes with hate. Indigenous communities live at a precarious intersection between unresolved historic injustices and the contemporary incursion of industry and political violence.



“We women of Papua have been bruised, cornered, besieged from all directions. We are not safe at home, and even less so outside the home. The burden we bear to feed our children is too heavy. The history of the Papuan people is covered in blood, and women are no exception as victims of the violence of blind military actions. We have experienced rape and sexual abuse in detention, in the grasslands, while seeking refuge, no matter where we were when the army and police conducted operations in the name of security.”



Property Rights in Kosovo explores cultural, political and social factors dating as far back as the Ottoman period that have contributed to the present state of property rights. It examines the legacy of the armed conflict and NATO intervention of 1999 in the massive population displacement in the region, and suggests ways to improve the effectiveness of efforts by local and international institutions to address property conflicts.



The International Center for Transitional Justice (ICTJ) and the United Nations Development Programme, with the support from the governments of Denmark and South Africa, held a retreat on Supporting Complementarity at the National Level: An Integrated Approach to the Rule of Law, at Greentree in Manhasset, New York, from December 7 through 9 in 2011. The retreat was conducted according to the Chatham House Rule, and this report provides a summary of the principal discussions without attributing views to individual participants.



This report is the fourth in a series monitoring the implementation of a collective reparations program in Peru since 2007, by ICTJ and the Association for Human Rights in Peru (APRODEH). The publication examines the effects of this reparations program through interviews with the beneficiaries and provides a platform for the voices of communities of the Andes and the Amazon to explore to what extent the program has been effective. Spanish only.