• Date: 11/1/2006

    Dujail: Trial and Error?

    Author: ICTJ

    This paper summarizes the basic facts about the Dujail trial, the first trial before the Iraqi High Tribunal (IHT) against Saddam Hussein and seven others. It also summarizes facts about the IHT in general. It considers both what the Iraqis wanted out of the trial, what such prosecutions can achieve, and evaluates the trial itself.

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  • Date: 9/1/2006

    Ghana's National Reconciliation Commission: A Comparative Assessment

    Author: ICTJ, Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation; Nahla Valji

    This report evaluates Ghana's National Reconciliation Commission (NRC) against its own objectives and the comparative experiences of truth commissions in other countries. Although the NRC was successful in securing some reconciliation, it was plagued by lack of resources and an overt politicization of the institution and its work.

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  • Date: 9/1/2006

    Lessons in Truth-Seeking: International Experiences Informing United States Initiatives

    Author: ICTJ; Lisa Magarrell, Blaz Gutierrez

    This report disscusses the Greensboro Truth and Reonciliation Commission's Final Report on the 1979 killings of five anti-Ku Klux Klan demonstrators. It focuses on a meeting of representatives from truth recovery efforts around the world to assess the Greensboro experience. Topics covered include best practices, lessons learned, and the potential of truth commissions for other communities and issues in the United States. It concludes that there is great potential to gain from this type of exchange, and that Greensboro is an inspiration for other communities.

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  • Date: 7/1/2006

    Truth Commissions and Gender: Principles, Policies, and Procedures

    Author: ICTJ; Vasuki Nesiah

    This report provides an overview of how truth commissions can address gender issues. It aims to help those involved with the truth commission process make informed decisions regarding different operational directions by highlighting potential advantages and disadvantages of the various approaches. Examples of how to address gender in truth commissions include: ensuring a specific number of female commissioners and staff; providing in-camera hearing options; and convening a gender hearing.

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  • Date: 7/1/2006

    Overpromised, Underdelivered: Transitional Justice in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Author: ICTJ; Lydiah Bosire

    This paper discusses the challenges encountered during efforts to pursue justice in a number of sub-Saharan African countries in transition, including Burundi, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana, Liberia, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, and South Africa. It presents a background and genealogy of transitional justice, and explores the obstacles that arise when implementing transitional justice measures such as prosecutions, truth-seeking, reparations, and institutional reform.

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  • Date: 7/1/2006

    ICTJ Written Submission: Legality of Truth and Reconciliation Commission

    Author: ICTJ

    In this amicus brief to the Indonesian Constitutional Court, ICTJ submits that the legislation establishing the Indonesian Truth and Reconciliation Commission ("TRC law") contravenes international law. ICTJ contests the provisions of the TRC law that allow for the granting of amnesty and that condition a victim's right to reparation upon the granting of amnesty. These provisions contradict a number of conventions, such as the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the Convention against Torture.

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  • Date: 6/1/2006

    Neglected Duty: Providing Comprehensive Reparations to the Indonesian "1965 Victims" of State Persecution

    Author: ICTJ; Teresa Birks

    This report outlines Indonesia's international law obligations to provide remedies to the "1965 victims" of General Soeharto's persecution and stigmatization of those affiliated with the Indonesia Communist Party. It traces the history of this persecution, provides an overview of current discriminatory laws and practices, and summarizes efforts to end such practices. It suggests implementing a comprehensive reparations framework within a coherent transitional justice strategy.

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  • Date: 5/1/2006

    A Brief History of Liberia

    Author: ICTJ; Peter Dennis

    This paper provides a brief history of Liberia, from Americo-Liberian rule in the 19th century to the 2005 elections. It provides accounts of the 1989-1996 and 1997-2003 civil wars, as well as of significant political changes and elections. It also includes appendixes of noteworthy individuals and a diagram mapping historical conflicts.

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  • Date: 3/5/2006

    Lessons from the Deployment of International Judges and Prosecutors in Kosovo

    Author: ICTJ; Tom Perriello, Marieke Wierda

    This case study reviews and analyzes the deployment of international judges and prosecutors in Kosovo. It is part of a series providing information on hybrid courts' policy and practical issues. Although the Kosovo system of international judges and prosecutors has made significant steps forward, it has been limited by continuing concerns regarding security and independence, ad hoc planning, and poor implementation.

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  • Date: 3/1/2006

    The Serious Crimes Process in Timor-Leste: In Retrospect

    Author: ICTJ; Caitlin Reiger, Marieke Wierda

    This paper analyzes the serious crimes process the UN established in Timor-Leste to try serious violations of human rights perpetrated in 1999. The main difficulty facing this process is that the vast majority of suspects are in Indonesia, and the Timorese government has not been able to secure their surrender. This issue has called into question the success of the entire operation and whether it was appropriate to pursue a hybrid court in Timor-Leste.

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