National Prosecutions


2020 was a year of unforeseen hardships throughout the world. We may wish to write off last year as a loss and move forward. However, looking back on it as we do in this 2020 Year in Review, in which we highlight our most read content, we can find and take heart in important victories and apply lessons learned in 2021 and beyond.


For more than two years, the establishment of the African Union Hybrid Court, a judicial body designed to redress human rights violations, had seemed to perpetually stalled, however the south Sudanese government has finally announced plans to go forward with the hybrid court.


The trial of a suspected warlord accused of atrocities during Liberia's civil war has started in Finland. Prosecutors say Gibril Ealoghima Massaquoi, from Sierra Leone, was a senior member of a rebel group that fought in Liberia from 1999 to 2003. He is accused of killing civilians and soldiers who had just been disarmed, rape, and recruiting child soldiers. He denies the charges and says he was taking part in peace talks at the time of the alleged crimes.


Much of the Arab world erupted in jubilant revolt 10 years ago against the dictatorial regimes whose corruption, cruelty and mismanagement had mired the Middle East in poverty and backwardness for decades.

Now, the hopes awakened by the protests have vanished but the underlying conditions that drove the unrest are as acute as ever.

Autocrats rule with an even tighter grip. Wars unleashed by leaders whose control was threatened have killed hundreds of thousands of people.


Nepal’s Supreme Court has issued two contempt of court notices to caretaker Prime Minister K.P. Sharma Oli, demanding he explain why he mocked lawyers challenging his decision to dissolve parliament and call early polls.

The contempt of court suits are the latest challenges for the beleaguered leader after being expelled from his party earlier this week.

The Supreme Court has ordered Oli to “present his written replies within seven days,” Devendra Dhakal, a Supreme Court official told Reuters.


Nepal’s caretaker Prime Minister Khadga Prasad Sharma Oli has been removed from the country’s governing Communist party, his opponents said, in protest against his abrupt move in December to dissolve Parliament and call for an early general election.

Despite being stripped of party membership, Oli remains in office.

Meanwhile, judges in the Himalayan country’s top court are hearing more than a dozen petitions from independent lawyers and Oli opponents on whether his move to dissolve Parliament and call an early election was legitimate or unconstitutional.


New York, January 25, 2021—"You cannot deliver 500 kilograms of transitional justice,” explains a high-level UN official in a new ICTJ report released today that explores the theoretical and practical challenges of measuring the results of transitional justice processes. These processes are complex and politically contested and are thus notoriously difficult to evaluate. The report offers key insights related to and tools for evaluating and monitoring transitional justice processes and assessing their impact.


Because transitional justice processes are complex, politically contested, and not necessarily linear, they present unique theoretical and practical challenges for measuring their results. This report seeks to improve monitoring and evaluation practices and support evidence-based processes and interventions in the transitional justice field. It promotes a more nuanced approach to monitoring and evaluation that considers the specific challenges, conditions, and needs of the field and the different contexts where transitional processes are pursued.

Date published: 
Mon, 01/25/2021 - 10:15


Riad Salameh, Lebanon’s embattled central bank chief, said he would face questioning in Switzerland as part of a Swiss money-laundering probe, a source tells Al Jazeera.

The Swiss investigation centers on multimillion-dollar transfers by Salameh, his brother Raja and an adviser, Marianna Al-Hoayek, according to Lebanese officials. Reports in local media and information from judicial sources suggest the amount in question is roughly $400 million.


Since the peace deal that the former guerrilla group FARC signed with the Colombian government, 253 former fighters have been killed, according to numbers compiled by the Institute for Development and Peace Studies.

One of the biggest challenges is identifying those responsible for the killings.

The United Nations Security Council repeated its call for more attention to the security issues affecting former rebels and human rights activists being killed in rural areas in a report released this month.